What other names is Germanium known by? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. Zweite Abhandlung", "Explanation of the observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus, on the hypothesis of disturbance by a more distant planet", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Account of observations at the Cambridge observatory for detecting the planet exterior to Uranus", "Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Niobium", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951: presentation speech", "Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices", "1941 – Semiconductor diode rectifiers serve in WW II", "Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements", "Germanium-oxygen double bond takes centre stage", "The distribution of gallium, germanium and indium in conventional and non-conventional resources – Implications for global availability (PDF Download Available)", "Eyselite, Fe3+Ge34+O7(OH), a new mineral species from Tsumeb, Namibia", https://www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de/DERA/DE/Downloads/vortrag_germanium.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=2, http://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/070_peh_76.pdf, "Ueber das Vorkommen des Germaniums in Steinkohlen und Steinkohlenprodukten", "Chapter III: Optical Fiber For Communications", "Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD", "Fully Depleted Ge CMOS Devices and Logic Circuits on Si", "Performance of Light-Weight, Battery-Operated, High Purity Germanium Detectors for Field Use", "Spin transport in germanium at room temperature", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanium&oldid=991915418, Chemical elements predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, after Germany, homeland of the discoverer, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 14:16. This makes it suitable for use in wide-angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes. Fun Facts about the name Germanium. [26] The remaining 5% went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and chemotherapy. [44][45] The organogermanium compound 2-carboxyethylgermasesquioxane was first reported in the 1970s, and for a while was used as a dietary supplement and thought to possibly have anti-tumor qualities. [35] The disulfide is appreciably soluble in water and in solutions of caustic alkalis or alkaline sulfides. For use in electronic devices, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Because this new element showed some similarities with the elements arsenic and antimony, its proper place in the periodic table was under consideration, but its similarities with Dmitri Mendeleev's predicted element "ekasilicon" confirmed that place on the periodic table. The cosmic abundance is much less than those of a number of the heavier elements; e.g., bromine, strontium, tin, barium, mercury, and lead. Alternative Title: Ge. This germaniu… For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. Extremely pure germanium crystals are obtained through a technique termed as zone refining which produces semiconductor grade germanium with an impurity of 1 in 1010. Formula: Help Key datasets. [48] When bombarded with alpha particles, the isotope 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing high energy electrons in the process. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. Company: WWW.GuideChem.COM: Address: 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China: Telephone +86-571-89739798: Fax: 86(21)54365166: 1.5 … Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. Germanium selenide. Germanium forms stable oxidation states of +2 and +4, the compounds of the latter being more stable and numerous. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of … Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The reflectivity has advantages over silicon in neutron and high energy X-ray applications. Print infocard Open Brief Profile. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it. [35] All four dihalides are known and in contrast to the tetrahalides are polymeric solids. Elemental germanium can be electrodeposited from many solutions and melts of its compounds. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. : 235-547-6. It is a shiny, hard, silver-white metalloid. The ‘Substance identity’ section is calculated from substance identification information from all ECHA databases. [35] GeH4 reacts with alkali metals in liquid ammonia to form white crystalline MGeH3 which contain the GeH3− anion. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. Its chemical symbol is Ge. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. [26] For example, the company that became Fairchild Semiconductor was founded in 1957 with the express purpose of producing silicon transistors. It is possible the name you are searching has less than five occurrences per year. [26], Because germanium and gallium arsenide have very similar lattice constants, germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells. Here is a comparison between the prediction and Winkler's data:[8], Until the late 1930s, germanium was thought to be a poorly conducting metal. 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