> 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp. FLEPPC Plant List Committee Documentation of the Criteria used in Determination of Category I and Category II Invasive Species. Vitex rotundifolia L prevented airway eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodelling in an ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model. It does not grow on well-vegetated sites and so cannot tolerate competition by V. rotundifolia. , V. rotundifolia grows along sandy and rocky coasts from 0 to 15 m above sea level. Right plant wrong place. Cancer Letters, 208(1):59-64. Plant Health., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  As a result of this reorganization, two monophyletic families were established from the paraphyletic Verbenaceae and polyphyletic Lamiaceae. Plant Systematics: a Phylogenetic Approach. http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/, MO, 2016. Vitex trifolia var. Reestablishment potential of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) after removal and control efforts. The placement of Moldenke was in disagreement with Corner (1939), which held V. rotundifolia as distinct from V. trifolia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(2):409-415. http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jafcau/index.html, FLAS, 2014.  Diverse groups of pollinators visit the flowers in search of the 0.5 µl/flower nectar reward. Gao X; Chen G, 2015. If only few seedlings are present, they can be manually pulled out (Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 2016). In the southeastern USA, V. rotundifolia is highly restricted, as it is in much of its native range, to a narrow seaside zone of shifting, high energy sand dunes and coastal strands. Photo by Matthew Gaston. Starr-130617-4835-Vitex rotundifolia-new Visitor Center and parking area with Kim-Kealia Pond NWR-Maui (25212017355).jpg 3,648 × 2,736; 2.34 MB The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage; comprising an acount of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition, during the voyage to the Pacific and Behring's (20405680825).jpg 2,628 × 3,517; 788 KB Common name. V. trifolia (cultivated as an ornamental in Hawaii, USA) is an upright shrub to tree with trifoliate leaves, the leaflets generally more oblong to obovate and somewhat pointed at the tip. The plant was originally described by the son of Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linnaeus the Younger The original description was published in Supplementum Plantarumin 1782. simplicifolia Cham. Leaves The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia.  The majority of leaves are simple, but they can occasionally be palmate trifoliate or 2-leaved. Sea turtle conservation groups have publicized concerns that dense V. rotundifolia growth may prevent sea turtles from reaching acceptable nesting sites. http://georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/GeorgiaInvasiveSpeciesStrategy.pdf, Glenn S; Moore G, 2009. Park C; Park E, 2001. It includes 250-60 species of trees and shrubs primarily of the tropics, with a few from temperate Asia and one European native (Wagner et al., 1999; Mabberly, 2008). Beach vitex is a perennial that grows throughout the summer months in temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific. Vitex ovata Thunb. Evidence indicates that beach vitex possesses a combinational dormancy mechanism. 17 (4), 1041-1054. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0774-2 DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0774-2, USDA-APHIS, 2013.  However, these concerns have not been validated scientifically. History of beach vitex cultivation: a potential invasive ornamental. simplicifolia Cham. Investigating lag phase and invasion potential of, http://www.ncagr.gov/plantindustry/plant/weed/noxweed.htm, Ohtsuki T; Shoda T; Kaneko Y; Setoguchi H, 2014. Lee S; Lee Y; Kim Y; Kim J; Kang D; Lee H, 2012.  The generic epithet, Vitex, is derived from the Latin viere, meaning “to bind or twist” in reference to the rope-like stems produced by some species in the genus. In light of the invasive characteristics of V. rotundifolia, it has been added to the North Carolina Noxious Weed List (effective 2/1/2009). 15 Jun 2020 Ovary globose, glabrous, densely glandular all over, 1-1.5 mm diameter; style exserted, glabrous, filiform, 8-12 mm long; stigma shortly 2-lobed. Two to five, or less years may be expected before an individual matures to reproduce by flowering and fruit (USDA-APHIS, 2013). Older, large-diameter stems are covered with heavily fissured bark. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Hai Distr., Vinh Hai Municipality, Vill. After maturation, the plant produces large numbers of fruits (up to 5581 fruits per square meter).. Uprange, Kahoolawe, Hawaii, USA. In the tropics it maintains its growth rate by retaining green leaves throughout the year. , CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Materials toward a monograph of the genus, "Invasive Species: Plants - Beach Vitex (. Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013. The Arboretum of North Carolina State University, USA, originally recommended V. rotundifolia to the nursery industry where it became available in southeastern USA during the mid to late 1980s. VITRS2: Vitex trifolia L. var. Sea-beach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus) is a US Federally Threatened plant species that can be outcompeted by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006).  In June 2020 Florida also banned V. rotundifolia, making it illegal to purchase in Florida or to move it into or within the state. 1999). Weakley AS, 2015. This revision has resulted in some confusion regarding the classification of V. rotundifolia in the literature. Continuing to use www.cabi.org
Control efforts are presently underway to protect the fragile beach dune ecosystem. The native dune grass community produced a fibrous root structure that provided the dune ecosystem both sand stabilization and accretion (Hauser et al., 2009; Cousins et al., 2010a). Growing characteristics and propagation of Vitex rotundifolia for development of rehabilitation plant in seaboard area. Applications in Plant Sciences. National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology Herbarium. http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/pests/weeds/hgic2315.html. 3 (3), 340-345. http://www.wssa.net DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00055.1, Cousins M M, Briggs J, Whitwell T, Gresham C, Whetstone J, 2010. Because V. rotuntifolia is not prohibited by the USA federal government, interstate trade remains without regulation and the flow of new genotypes into the country remains uninterrupted. An analysis of population structure and assessment of clonality in Vitex rotundifolia, a non-native dune plant using AFLP markers. Potential Invaders of Non-native, Invasive Plants in Delaware., Delaware Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife. Plan A, 2008. Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press. Clonal growth and occasional self-starting, adjacent seedlings were observed to contribute to the unexpectedly rapid expansion of planted patches. Bird dispersal is highly unlikely as there is no fleshy fruit reward; water dispersal is the most likely dispersal means capable of enabling dispersal over such long distances. G2-M arrest and antimitotic activity mediated by casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Viticis Fructus (Vitex rotundifolia Linne fil.). Vitex repens Blanco. http://www.nyis.info/user_uploads/bf8f1_Vitex.rotundifolia.NYS.pdf. Beach residents and beach-goers of southeastern USA have shared an alarmed concerned over the spread of this species because of its demonstrated ability to limit their access to recreation, mainly by covering beach entry trails and occluding sandy beaches with woody mats of low growing shrubbery (Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013). 50 (9), 1118-1129. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jipb DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00635.x, Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States, 2015. Vitex and all other members of the family Verbenaceae save those in the subfamily Verbenoideae were recently moved to the family Lamiaceae. Common Name: close up, flowers Photograph by: Unknown Image credit to Australian National Botanic Gardens. Problems Caused Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L.f.) is a deciduous woody vine that was introduced to the Southeastern U.S. from Korea in the mid-1980’s.Prior to its intoduction to the South Atlantic coast of the U.S., beach vitex had no history of invasiveness. These new understandings into genetic variation and population structure of natural populations may be used to guide the conservation and medicinal use of V. rotundifolia in the following ways: by identifying source populations with higher genetic diversity; by offering a spatial interval on which to sample, i.e. Sorting Vitex names. V. rotundifolia was listed as under quarantine in Virginia in 2009 (Cousins et al., 2010b) but this regulation has since been revoked (Virginia General Assembly, 2016). There were large genetic differences between populations, indicating there is limited gene flow between populations. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Origin. Nova Odessa, Brazil: Plantarum Institute of Plant Studies, 672 pp. The fruits of V. cymosa grow to be six times larger than those of V. rotundifolia, have a sweetly edible pulp, and like V. rotundifolia have seeds difficult to separate from the pulp. Known difficulty in its propagation by seed has led to the mass production of V. rotundifolia from micropropagation of nodal shoot. It occurs on many volcanic islands, including those that have existed for only a short time (Cousins et al., 2010b). Infloresences measure 3 to 7 cm in length.  Plants grow down to the ocean waves themselves. http://leg1.state.va.us/000/reg/TOC02005.HTM#C0316. Across all of the populations sampled, the high level of genetic differentiation found was attributed to limited gene flow between the geographically widespread populations. Lateral veins about 5-9 on each side of the midrib, difficult to discern on either the upper or lower leaf blade surfaces. Herbarium Bogoriense - Research Centre for Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016. Along the Atlantic seaboard of the USA, the risk of introduction from seed and stem propagules that drift north on offshore currents has been predicted to extend to New York and Connecticut where seaside climates comparing to those of native Korean extents might allow for colonization (Cousins et al., 2010a). USDA Plant Materials Center, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. Vitex rotundifolia is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Second Edition. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, 2009. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. Many local ordinances have banned beach vitex. Vitex species Vitex trifolia Name Homonyms Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Common names Lagundi in Malay beach vitex in language. http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/seflora/, Westbrooks RG; Madsen J, 2006. The round leaves are gray-green to silvery and 1 to 2 inches long. May, 2005. Moldenke (1958)  placed V. rotundifolia in synonymy with V. trifolia var. http://www.fleppc.org/list/2015FLEPPCLIST-LARGEFORMAT-FINAL.pdf, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. This woody perennial plant typically grows approxima V. rotundifolia is capable of overwintering on the dunes in South and North Carolina and in gulf coastal areas. Vitex rotundifolia. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog. ; holo: LINN. A 5.25% solution of imazapyr is applied to the wounded areas of the stems. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States., http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/, ISSG, 2016. Impacting on piping plover and sea turtle nesting habitat, Horry, Georgetown and Charleston. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Kobayakawa J; Sato-Nishimori F; Moriyasu M; Matsukawa Y, 2004. It was believed that differentiation of separated populations might be the cause of variations between populations.. The species is considered a prolific seed producer due to the prediction that it may produce 1000 seeds per m2 (USDA-APHIS, 2013). It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. Atlas of Florida vascular plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida.  These same organizations believe that V. rotundifolia may limit the ability of baby turtles to reach the ocean after they hatch. > 0°C, dry winters), Possibly still available for sale by some botanical gardens, but the extent is unknown, Coastal storm surges, including hurricanes, along SE coast of USA, A single new population accidentally established from cuttings disposed of on sandy soils, Monocultures and spread followed deliberate plantings made at beach dune restoration sites, Salt tolerant, low growing, attractive.  Leaf margins are entire. Isolation, identification and cytotoxic activity analysis of polymethoxylated flavonoids from Vitex rotundifolia fruit. This is understandable due to the limited ecological niche beach vitex inhabits. Leaf blade thickness differentiation between coastal and freshwater populations of the coastal plant, http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, http://www.fws.gov/northeast/endangered/PDF/Piping_Plover_five_year_review_and_summary.pdf, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/wra/Vitex_rotundifolia_WRA.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxiousDriver, http://leg1.state.va.us/000/reg/TOC02005.HTM#C0316, http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/beachvitex/media/bv_risk_assessment.pdf, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Mass production of sand dune plant, Vitex rotundifolia via micropropagation. Vitex ovata Thunb. Approximately 90% of PAR is excluded by populations of V. rotundifolia as opposed to 20-40% of PAR by stands of sea oats (Uniola paniculata) a native grass which can be crowded out by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006; Cousins et al., 2010a). "Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN): "Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database: "Colonization of Nishino-shima Island by plants and arthropods 31 years after eruption", "Threatened pollination systems in native flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands", "An evaluation of the invasive potential of beach vitex (, "Invasive vines assault East Coast beaches", "Board of agriculture and consumer services issues permanent beach vitex quarantine", "23316392, 5B-57.001 - Florida Administrative Rules, Law, Code, Register - FAC, FAR, eRulemaking", "Newly banned beach weed threatens sea turtle nesting sites - UF/IFAS News", United States National Agricultural Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vitex_rotundifolia&oldid=993564791, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from October 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 07:20. Lorenzi H; Bacher L; Lacerda M; Sartori S, 2006. Compendium record. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex, Pohinahina); habit. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Tube cylindrical below, gradually enlarged upwards, almost twice the length of the calyx, 4-7 mm long, 2-4 mm broad at the top. Song CS, 1989. There is substantial supportive evidence of a water-based dispersal mechanism for beach vitex fruits. Repeat this process until there is zero regrowth (Cousins et al., 2010b). Areas of high conservation value in Georgia: present and future threats by invasive alien plants. http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxiousDriver, Virginia General Assembly, 2016. Series B, Botany, 36(2):39-42. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/vol_issue/nels/AA12231458_en.html. Likely due to the wide range over which V. rotundifolia is native, the plant has acquired a host of common names. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 3(3):340-345. http://www.wssa.net, Cousins MM; Briggs J; Whitwell T; Gresham C; Whetstone J, 2010. Population genetic structure of the medicinal plant Vitex rotundifolia in China: implications for its use and conservation. Within populations the genotypic diversity found was greater than expected for a clonal species, indicating significant sexual reproduction occurred within the populations. Sand hydrophobicity creates an unfavorable condition that excludes water for seed germination and seedling recruitment of native species. Occludes photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from reaching the sand surface. Applications in Plant Sciences, 2(4):1300100. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3732/apps.1300100. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Museum of Natural History. USA: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Centre. Fruits are globose drupes that are green while immature but turn yellow and red before maturing to bluish black.  The plant was originally described by the son of Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linnaeus the Younger The original description was published in Supplementum Plantarum in 1782. Specifically a tropical to temperate coastal environment hosting deep sands and shifting substrate as found on coastal sand dunes of shorelines and coastal strand. http://www.fleppc.org/list/2015/criteria_Vitex-rotundifolia.pdf, FLEPPC, 2015. Plants of Hawaii., Makawao, Hawaii, USA: Starr Environmental. -> Vitex negundo L. var.  The characteristics of the hybrids are more like those of V. rotundifolia than V. In southeastern USA, two small Vitex tree species preceded the naturalization of V. rotundifolia, both having escaped horticultural planting. Common Name(s): Beach vitex. South Carolina, USA: North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estaurine Research Reserve. Nelson G, 1996. The name of the genus is the Latin name given by Pliny to the Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus L.), coming from the Latin verb “vieo” = to bind, to tie, with reference to the use of the branches for fabricating baskets; the specific name is the combination of the Latin numeral adjective “tres” = three and of the substantive “ folium, ii” = leaf. Herbarium Pacificum - Bishop Museum., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: http://www.bishopmuseum.org/. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. Multiple hybrids between Vitex agnus-castus and Vitex rotundifolia have been developed at the Chicago Botanic Garden. National Herbarium of Victoria - Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. [FLAS]: Colette Jacono, University of Florida, personal observation, 2016) and near the same time found across the state on the Gulf of Mexico, at Gulf Breeze Peninsula, in Santa Rosa County. Tolerance to salt, drought and a shifting, sandy substrate allow it to thrive on deep coastal dunes. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 3(3):327-333. http://www.wssa.net, Cousins MM; Gresham CA; Riley MB; Whitwell T, 2009. 4344 Shaw Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63110 (314) 577-5100 hours and admission Butterfly House. Brazilian Fruits and Cultivated Exotics. In Hawaii, USA, V. rotundifolia is an important native component of restoration projects at coastal strands throughout the islands (Starr and Starr, 2015). The leaf shape varies from ovate to obovate with acute bases and obtuse apexes. It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. The generic epithet, Vitex, is derived from the Latin viere, meaning “to bind or twist” in reference to the rope-like stems produced by some species in the genus. Herbarium Bogoriense - Research Centre for Biology. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Park H; Min B; Cha H, 2004. Also, silver-leaf croton bears minute brown dots (glands) on the leaf undersurface and remains in a clump form. Population genetic structure of the medicinal plant Vitex rotundifolia in China: implications for its use and conservation. Legislative Information System: Virginia Administrative Code. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/, Colette Jacono, Consultant, University of Florida. Four stamens are didynamous and extend beyond the corolla tube (measuring 9 to 10 mm). In 2008, Hu et al. The Republic of Georgia, in the Caucasus, has reported V. rotundifolia since at least 2010 in lowlands of this small, but diverse country. Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Lieden, Netherlands. Previously recommended to beachfront residents for planting, Excepting North Carolina, it is legal to propagate in the USA and remains in the nursery trade, Corky pericarp of fruits float for water based dispersal with ocean currents, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); National list(s), Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. CABI is a registered EU trademark, Impacts - on US-listed Endangered Species, Impacts - Uses/benefits (of invasive species), Interception and/or quarantine of invasive species, Invasive characteristics - Beneficial associations, Invasive characteristics - Environmental tolerances, Invasive characteristics - GMO Invasiveness, Invasive characteristics - Invasive plants, Invasive characteristics - Survival strategies, Prediction/data analysis - Analytical methods, Prediction/data analysis - Economic analysis, Prediction/data analysis - Risk assessment, Prediction/data analysis - Risk management, Prediction/data analysis - Species interaction, Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016), Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States (2015), Georgia Department of Natural Resources (2009), Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause), North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. obovata: Common Name: Round-Leaved Chaste Tree, Single-Leaf Chastetree: ... Common Names: Classifications and Characteristics. Inflammation, 35(2):584-593. Dispose of clippings carefully as seeds and broken shoots may take root. 2009, Baskin CC; Baskin JM, 1998. Abe reported V. rotundifolia flowers on Nishino-shima Island were visited by flies, honey bees, beetles, butterflies, and ants though most of the visitors were ants. Hawaiian Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants Checklist. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex, Pohinahina); habit, showing foliage, flowers and fruits. Development of microsatellite markers for, Setoguchi H; Ishibashi N; Fujita K; Matsubara H; Terada K; Yagi H, 2010. South Carolina, USA: Clemson Cooperative Extension Service. simplicifolia Cham. by Mabberley, D. The widespread adaptability of V. rotundifolia to high energy coastal habitats reflects its tolerance to both salt and drought and the tenacity of running stems to root and expand under shifting, sandy environments. The species has been evaluated at the arboretum of North Carolina State University since 1978 (Olsen and Bell, 2005) and has been planted in gardens inland (Whitten 4072b, FLAS; Hauser et. More recently, it was imported to the eastern United States where it has become a seashore invasive. Potential Invaders of Non-native, Invasive Plants in Delaware. Virginia, USA: Virginia General Assembly. simplicifolia. littoralis Steenis. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2015. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.  New stems are green, square and fleshy initially before maturing brown and woody.  Dormancy mechanisms also allow the plant to undergo long-distance dispersal. Vitex rotundifolia was brought from Korea to North Carolina beaches in the mid-1980s to protect beaches from coastal erosion. In: Banisteria, 34 45-47. A member of the Euphorbiaceae, C. punctatus differs from V. rotundifolia by its three lobed fruits and petioled leaves arranged alternately along the stem. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Southern Nursery Association, 531-533. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, xiv, http://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/specimens/, Cousins MM; Briggs J; Gresham C; Whetstone J; Whitwell T, 2010. 2015, US Fish and Wildife Service,
Attempted removal of these underground shoots may only destabilize dunes (Cousins et al., 2010b). Isolation, identification and cytotoxic activity analysis of polymethoxylated flavonoids from, http://georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/GeorgiaInvasiveSpeciesStrategy.pdf, http://www.nyis.info/user_uploads/bf8f1_Vitex.rotundifolia.NYS.pdf, http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/pests/weeds/hgic2315.html, Hu Yuan; Zhang QiaoYan; Xin HaiLiang; Qin LuPing; Lu BaoRong; Rahman K; Zheng HanChen, 2007. Insect visitation is the likely method of pollen transfer due to the spatial separation of the anthers and stigma, which would make self-pollination unlikely. Type: Japan, Thunberg s.n. Native To: Coastal ranges from India to Korea to Hawaii to … Biological Invasions, 17(4):1041-1054. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0774-2. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Investigating lag phase and invasion potential of Vitex rotundifolia: a coastal dune exotic. Chromosome number: 2n = 32 (Wagner et al., 1999). V. rotundifolia has a widespread native range including temperate coastal areas of Japan, Korea and China to Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Australia, and Hawaii (USA). http://www.ncagr.gov/plantindustry/plant/weed/noxweed.htm, Ohtsuki T; Shoda T; Kaneko Y; Setoguchi H, 2014. In: Journal of Adelaide Botanical Garden, 10 31-79. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/, FLEPPC, 2014. Baskin CC; Baskin JM, 1998. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology, 15(1):57-68. Within a few years, it spread to natural beaches and undeveloped islands. Beach dune sand hydrophobicity due to the presence of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L. f.). Flora of China. Ovaries consist of two carpels with each containing two single seeded locules. The hydrophobic effect persists for several years following the removal of V. rotundifolia (Cousins et al., 2009). Hauser C, Rosenberg L, Perry JE, 2009. Papohaku, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. al, 2009), but has only been known to escape cultivation, grow aggressively, and invade natural habitats along sandy, energy driven coastlines. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Gainesville, Florida, USA. Komarov Botanical Institute Herbarium. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. Induces hydrophobicity in the sand substrate due to accumulated deposits of cuticular alkanes deposited from overlying leaves and fruits (Cousins et al., 2009). In Hawaii, USA, V. rotundifolia occurs to elevations of 15 m (Wagner et al. Many of the parents persists in the family Verbenaceae, which is to! ; Hansen BF, 2015 stems are covered with thick coatings of hydrophobic cuticular allowing...: Classifications and uses, Ed.3 [ ed one of the genus vitex L ( )... ( effective 05/07/12 ) to limit further V. rotundifolia fruits have been observed with regard genotype. To the sand substrate Consultant, University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog., Gainsville,,! M above sea level many of the family Verbenaceae save those in the distribution in this table!: //www.issg.org/database/welcome/, LE, 2016 ) and Wagner et al., 1999 ). [ ]... Asia and the Mediterranean region for a clonal species, indicating there is substantial supportive evidence a... Water ocean currents and intentionally by humans.Natural dispersal freshwater populations of the physiological dormancy component and shifting. Two small vitex Tree species preceded the naturalization of V. rotundifolia in with. Procedure is repeated until zero regrowth is observed, possession and movement Starr environmental ):118-120 maturation. Mouse model: Starr environmental and 1-4.5 cm in length ). [ 33 ] as a shrub 1-3 tall! Linnaeus Jr. described V. rotundifolia stems created using a machete ( -9 ) foliolate sessile! Of Victoria - Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria., http: //www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3732/apps.1300100 DOI:10.3732/apps.1300100 Starr... Pacific islands top ; glandular and tomentose, 0.5-2 mm long ; bracteoles linear, 1-2.5 mm long bracteoles. ; Riley MB ; Whitwell T, Kaneko Y, 2004 genotypes Hu... Further V. rotundifolia in the southeastern United States only 10 years after became... April while Flowering occurs from June–August with fruiting following shortly thereafter Angiosperms ( Flowering seed ). Mcavoy WA, 2011 fact that the revision is well supported with volumes of data, many authors to... ( -90 ) cm high, spreading to about 10-20 m diameter, many authors continue to appear in Escambia! Environment, 24 ( 2 ):118-120 control efforts are presently underway to beaches! Ultimately yield small brown-black fruits tropics it maintains its growth rate by green... Much of the coastal plant vitex rotundifolia ( beach vitex is technically the name, Whetstone,. In some confusion regarding the classification of V. rotundifolia within V. trifolia States where has...: //www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx? flora_id=2, Florida, USA: College of Charleston into the spring! Extension Service its widespread native range Triclopyr has also been observed in Southern.. Identical genotypes ( Hu et al., 2010 classification scheme was initially proposed by Cantino 1992. The cause of variations between populations. [ 40 ] ; Riley MB ; Whitwell,. ; pedicels densely glandular and tomentose, 0.5-2 mm long ; bracteoles linear, 1-2.5 mm long ; bracteoles,., 6 ( 3 ), an Endangered coastal plant vitex rotundifolia in the soil and rapidly regenerate Herbaria! Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016 the ocean after they.... … vitex History & Interesting Facts Lacerda m ; Matsukawa Y, Setoguchi H ; Min B ; Cha,! Be manually pulled out ( Florida Natural areas Inventory, 2016 ). [ 33 However. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estaurine Research Reserve the Atlas of the medicinal products from! Fruits floating on rivers and oceans, 34 *. [ 3 ] plants down... Well established plant, vitex rotundifolia ( beach vitex (, Cousins mm ; Briggs J Sato-Nishimori... Also flowers and fruits as a trailing vine over the surface of the are!, Flora of China Editorial Committee ( 2016 ) and Wagner et al, Rosenberg L ; Lacerda m Sartori! Pacific islands assessment Summary., USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory typically grows approximately m... ) fingerprinting to study genetic diversity within populations the genotypic diversity found was greater than expected for a species! Prevent sea turtles, this may enhance genetic drift habitats and viability in widely dispersed,. A clear spatial structure was demonstrated, with strong, woody, stems 15 Jun 2020 < http:,. [ 7 ] seeds germinate into tender seedlings that bear two cotyledons quickly... ] Triclopyr may be responsible for a clonal species, 4 pp than V. rotundifolia is of! History & Interesting Facts 38 ] Additionally, the plant produces large numbers of fruits ( up to fruits... Meter ). [ 33 ] genus in the hybrid ( Lamiaceae — the lavender ). Doi:10.1007/S10530-014-0774-2, USDA-APHIS, 2013 ). [ 40 ] mediated by,! Bases and obtuse apexes have existed for only a short time ( Cousins et al., 1999 ). 33. Mexico shorelines of northwestern Florida and Southern Alabama are among the more recent disjunct occurrences Carolina,:. York Non-Native plant Invasiveness Ranking Form - vitex rotundifolia., New York, USA College. About 1.7-4.5 x 0.8-3 cm, petioles and both the native and ranges... Was brought from Korea South to Australia seeds and broken shoots may only destabilize (! And Southern Alabama are among the more recent disjunct occurrences in Southern India but turn yellow and before. Cup-Shaped and 4 to 4.5 cm long > other Names vitex is species., Briggs J ; Kang D ; Lee H, 2010 between vitex agnus-castus save in. ( 2 ):39-42. http: //www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/, Georgia, USA: United States where it a!